What was california called before colonization?

The land they called Alta California was occupied by diverse groups of natives who had inhabited the land for thousands of years. Spanish colonization of Alta California began when the Presidio of San Diego, the first permanent European settlement on the Pacific coast, was established in 1769.When the Spanish navigator Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo became the first European to see the region, which is present-day California, in 1542, there were approximately 130,000 Native Americans who inhabit the area. The territory was neglected by Spain for more than two centuries (up to 176) due to reports of poverty in the region and a general slowdown in Spanish exploration. Merchant Sebastián Vizcaíno sailed from Mexico to the southern coast of California in 1602, and gave its name to San Diego, Santa Catalina Island, Santa Barbara and Monterrey.

Working with inaccurate maps, Vizcaíno and several later explorers believed California to be an island and became discouraged when they were unable to chart the surrounding seas. The pressure for a settlement came from missionaries eager to convert Native Americans to Christianity, from the intrusion of Russian and British merchants, mainly in search of sea otter skins, and from the search for the Northwest Passage across the North American continent. In 1769, the Spanish viceroy sent land and sea expeditions from Baja California, and Franciscan friar Junipero Serra established the first mission in San Diego. Gaspar de Portolá established an outpost in 1770 in Monterrey.

Colonization began after 1773 with the opening of a land supply route through the deserts of the southwest that aimed to link other Spanish settlements in what are the current states of Arizona and New Mexico with the coast. The 21 missions established by Serra and his successors were the strongest factors in California's development. While trying to Christianize the Indians of the mission, the parents taught them agriculture and crafts. With the forced labor of the Mission Indians, the fathers irrigated vast ranches and exchanged skins, tallow, wine, brandy, olive oil, grains and leather for manufactured goods brought by U.S.

merchant ships around Cape Horn. The 1850 Commitment Did Not Solve California's Slavery Problem. Political parties were divided according to whether they believed that California should be a free state or a slave state. A movement, led by supporters of the California senator.

Gwin, sought to divide California into two states, one slave and one free. The same group also tried to promote a republic on the Pacific coast. However, at the start of the Civil War, California sided with the North and provided it with materials and soldiers. After the war, control of the governor's office shifted back and forth between Democrats and Republicans until the end of the century.

The political climate after 1876 was distinguished by labor problems and the activity of those who sought to control mining, irrigation and fruit growing through state funding. An economic downturn in the 1870s led to increased discontent among unions, a result of which was the demand for exclusion of Chinese workers, who worked for lower rates of pay than those of “whites”. The problems and turmoil of the period led to the constitution of 1879, which included reforms but discriminated against the Chinese. An exclusion law passed by the U.S.

UU. That year's Congress was assassinated by the presidential veto, but the following year a treaty agreement with China allowed the U.S. This was followed by the China Exclusion Act in 1882, which suspended Chinese immigration for 10 years. In 1902, Congress re-enacted exclusionary legislation against the Chinese.

By cutting off cheap labor, the exclusion helped make huge single-crop ranches unprofitable and led to the proliferation of smaller farms producing varied crops. Japanese farmworkers were brought in to replace the Chinese, but as they succeeded, the protest over the “yellow danger” increased once again. Japanese turmoil, mainly focused on San Francisco, affected domestic and international policies. The Gentlemen's Agreement between Japan and the United States in 1907 stopped Japanese immigration to the United States.

In 1913, Webb's Foreign Land Act, designed to prevent Japanese people from owning land, was the culmination of anti-Japanese lobbying. Therefore, California's primitive population bore little physical resemblance to the Native Americans of the Great Plains and apparently shared no language or cultural ties with these nations. Spanish explorers found the tip of what is now Baja California in 1533 and named it California after a mythical island in a popular Spanish novel. After the Treaty of Cahuenga was signed in early 1847, the Pacific Squadron captured every city and port in Baja California and sank or captured all of the Mexican Pacific Navy they could find.

The lack of rainfall in the region during the growing season meant that agriculture was not a practical means of livelihood for early Californians, but the mild climate and rich soil allowed these groups to live by skillfully harvesting and processing wild nuts and berries and catching the fish that cluttered streams. British sailor captain James Cook, midway through his third and final exploration voyage in 1778, sailed along the west coast of North America aboard HMS Resolution, mapping the coast from California to the Bering Strait. Tribes in California's broad Central Valley and surrounding foothills developed early agriculture, while tribes living in the mountains of the north and east relied heavily on salmon hunting and hunting, collecting and shaping obsidian for themselves and for the. Both these towns and the missions were on the California side of the Colorado River, but were managed by Arizona authorities.

The flag of the state of California today is based on the original bear flag and continues to contain the words “Republic of California”. They were leaving California on their way to what is now Oregon when they learned, in early June 1846, that war was imminent and that a revolt had already begun in Sonoma, California. Missionaries and the military often had contrary purposes in their vision of what California could become, and missionaries preferred to rely on Indian allies to maintain control. Some 6,000 wagons, carrying about 40,000 more fortune seekers, moved west that year along the California Trail.

Even before Mexico gained control of Alta California, Spain's onerous rules against trade with foreigners began to break, as the declining Spanish fleet could not enforce its non-trade policies. Polk, who held office from March 4, 1845 to March 4, 1849, tried to get the Congress of 1848 to turn California into a territory with a territorial government, and again in 1849, but failed to get Congress to agree on the details of how this was going to be done, the question was the number of free states vs. . This 22-mile (35 km) line was intended to take advantage of the thriving gold digs in Placerville, California, but was completed around the same time (February 1985), when nearby mining came to an end.

But in 1846, the war between Mexico and the United States broke out, and two years later, California was annexed by the United States. San Diego Bay is one of California's few natural harbors south of San Francisco, and to claim this strategic asset, the southern border was tilted to include the entire California Bay. .

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