After Mexico won independence in 1821, California fell under the jurisdiction of the First Mexican Empire. Fearing the Influence of the Roman Catholic Church. In 1821, Mexico achieved independence, and news of this event reached Alta California the following year. The colonial policies of the republic were to be very different from those of the Spanish monarchy.
Not only were Californians allowed to trade with foreigners, but foreigners could also own land in the province once they had naturalized and converted to Catholicism. Under Spain, land concessions to individuals were scarce and title deeds to these lands remained in the hands of the crown. However, under Mexican rule, governors were encouraged to make more grants for individual ranches, and these grants needed to be direct. The most important thing is that the new Mexican republic was determined to move to secularize the missions, remove the natives and the ownership of the mission from the control of the Franciscan missionaries.
Under the terms of the treaty negotiated by Trist, Mexico ceded to the United States, Alta California and New Mexico. This was known as the Mexican Cession and included current Arizona and New Mexico and parts of Utah, Nevada and Colorado (see Article V of the treaty). Mexico also waived all claims to Texas and recognized the Rio Grande as the southern border with the United States (see Article V). However, at the start of the Civil War, California sided with the North and provided it with materials and soldiers.
The number of settlers in Alta California, always a minority of the total population, increased slowly, especially in more births than deaths in California's California population. The 1970s saw the end of private passenger railroads in California, the creation of a national passenger railway (Amtrak), and the opening of the BART rail system in the Bay Area. The few owners of these large ranches were inspired by the landowning nobility in Spain and dedicated themselves to maintaining themselves living in great style. Even before Mexico gained control of Alta California, Spain's onerous rules against trade with foreigners began to break, as the declining Spanish fleet could not enforce its non-trade policies.
Most of the grants were virtually free and usually went to friends and family of the California government. Thus, in the next dozen years, local authorities relaxed restrictions on trade with non-Spanish merchants so that the colony could survive, and Californians became accustomed to contacting sailors, merchants, hunters and trappers from England, France, Russia and, of course, the United States. By then, California was home to a native population now reduced to less than 100,000 and about 14,000 permanent residents. Nicholas Trist was the chief secretary of Secretary of State James Buchanan, and was sent to Mexico in 1847 to work with General Winfield Scott to negotiate an agreement in the war between Mexico and the United States.
The possibility of dividing Southern California as a territory or state was rejected by the national government, and the idea had died in 1861, when patriotic fervor swept California after the attack on Fort Sumter. Before the Gold Rush, there was almost no infrastructure in California, except for a few small towns, secularized and abandoned missions, and about 500 large ranches (averaging more than 73 km), owned by Californians, who had mostly seized the Mission's land and livestock. With the defeat of its army and the fall of the capital, Mexico City, in September 1847, the Mexican government surrendered to the United States and entered into negotiations to end the war. In San Diego, Serra founded the first of 21 Spanish missions that extend along the California coast.
Before Alta California became part of the Mexican state, approximately 30 Spanish land grants had already been made throughout Alta California to soldiers of the Presidio and government officials and some friends and family of the governors of Alta California, some of whom were grandchildren of the original Anza of 1775.expedition settlers. The Central Pacific Railroad, the Pacific end of the railroad, largely handled almost all of the cargo across the Sierra Nevada Mountains in Northern California. . .